Depression is a serious and often debilitating disorder that affects approximately 16 million Americans per year. Because women are diagnosed with depression 2 to 3 times more often than men, depression in women has been more thoroughly researched; however, depression in men is a relatively understudied topic. In this paper I highlight how depression is manifested in men specifically via somatic symptoms, addictive outlets, externalizing behaviors, and other manifestations. I investigate potential causal factors for these manifestations. Additionally, opposing theories about whether depression is under-diagnosed are explored.
Tolle, L. (2010). Manifestations of Male Depression: Theories of (Under) Diagnosis (Undergraduate honors thesis, University of Redlands). Retrieved from http://inspire.redlands.edu/cas_honors/53