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Nearly 150 years ago, scholars aligned verses from the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke in parallel columns, In doing this they noticed something they had not before. Up to this point, scholars had assumed that the Gospel of Mark had acted as a source for the Gospels of Matthew and Luke - as there is material in Matthew and Luke that is also in Mark. These scholars now saw that there was a significant amount of similar material found in Matthew and Luke, which was not seen in mark. Thus the idea of a second source evolved, a source today known as Q. This thesis applies mathematical analysis and statistical tests to better understand the Q.