The Effects of Colored Illumination on Word Associations

Publication Year



word associations, colored illumination, emotions, Palermo-Jenkins norms, colors


Communication Sciences and Disorders | Psychiatry and Psychology | Psychology | Social and Behavioral Sciences


30 words from the 1964 Palermo-Jenkins norms were presented in a booklet from word association test to 100 subjects under five colors of light: blue, re, green, yellow, and white. It was found that the color of light did not have a significant effect on the frequency of common responses, as determined by the Palermo-Jenkins norms. However, the color of lighting did have a significant effect upon the number of idiosyncratic responses under each color of light.

It was determined that the page number of the booklet and sex of the subject had an influence upon the frequency of common responses given to the word association test.

It had been hypothesized that the colored lights would influence the word associations through the mediator of induced emotional states; but, it was found that the color of light was not related to the emotional state of the subjects.

It was found that color name responses were influenced by the favorite color of the subjects as well as the color of the light during the word associations.

When the lighting conditions were ignored, it was found that in the seven years since the Palermo-Jenkins norms, eleven of the thirty stimulus words have had a change in primary response.

This document is currently unavailable online.