Publication Year



Literature, Mann, Joyce, Camus, outsider, society


Comparative Literature | English Language and Literature | Fiction | Sociology


What is the igniting fuse among a bourgeois manque, a rebellious artist, and an existentialist? The common combustible element between these three characters is that they are all outsiders alienated from society. Tonio Kroger, the bourgeois manque, is portrayed by Thomas Mann in Tonio Kroger, his tender study of the maturing artist. The rebellious artist, Stephen Dedalus, is ingeniously created by James Joyce who traces Stephen's evolution from infancy to the verge of his artistic career in A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man. The third outsider, the existentialist, is embodied in Albert Camus' character Meursault, who develops from an unaware person into an explosively aware man in The Stranger.

Department 1 Awarding Honors Status

English: Literature and Writing