Publication Year



Biology, aggression, female, hierarchies, gasterosteus aculeatus, three-spined stickleback


Biology | Life Sciences


An animal is said to be behaving aggressively if the other animal involved is injured, forced into submission, or driven off. Another definition of aggressive behavior is that it is a physical act or threat of action by one individual which reduces the freedom or genetic fitness of another individual. Aggressive behavior is common in nature and is often the result of competition for access to resources. When an organism acts aggressively, energy and time are consumed and the organism risks injury. For aggressive behavior to evolve, these costs must be counterbalanced and, in theory, outweighed by benefits such as access to food, to a mate, or to space. These costs and benefits ultimately determine the individual's reproductive success.

Department 1 Awarding Honors Status