Publication Year



Teaching aids, flow charts, applied knowledge, study materials, education


Curriculum and Instruction | Education | Educational Methods | Teacher Education and Professional Development


A study involving 358 subjects was conducted to determine the effectiveness of flow charts as aids in conveying information, A two page explanation of basic trademark law was provided. Half the subjects also received flow charts showing organized and interrelated trademark principles and examples. Subjects had either 6 or 9 minutes to study the materials. All subjects answered 32 questions measuring recall, comprehension of concepts, and application of concepts to new fact patterns. Subjects were studied in two groups: 193 undergraduates (average age 20) and 165 graduates (average age 29). When tested on factual material, all subjects performed better with flow charts than without, regardless of time. undergraduates had better comprehension with less study time. Undergraduates performed worse with the flow chart and the longer study time than any other condition. Recommendations for a future study focuses on the effect of increased organizational disparity text and flow charts.