Publication Date


DOI (Digital Object Identifier)



Leadership and Higher Education


Doctor of Education (Ed.D)

Dissertation Chair

Ronald Morgan, Ed.D.

Committee Members

Christopher Hunt, Ed.D.

Giovanni Annous, Ed.D.


social sciences; education; 1.5-generation; assimilation and acculturation; cultural awareness; English learner; female Mexican students


Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education | Educational Leadership


The 1.5-generation students' needs have been widely overlooked because of the mythology surrounding Mexican students, a declining economy that has diminished resources, and the convenience of putting all English Learner (EL) students in Dual Immersion, English as a Second Language (ESL), English Language Development (ELD) or Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English (SDAIE) programs. This study explored the unique issues faced by the 1.5-generation female Mexican students and the factors that got in the way of their enrollment in higher education programs. Students from the 1.5-generation have faced many difficulties that have not been adequately addressed.

This study also investigated Mexican female student achievement and the factors surrounding underachievement of Mexican female students in California public schools. In addition, this study examined how to increase cultural and historical awareness as well as implications for district and school administrators and teachers. Myths have made it easy for educators to overlook the issue of placing different kinds of English Learners into the same program and made them comfortable with easy explanations when the students fail.

Immigrants are faced with an array of challenges as they begin the process of assimilation and acculturation. Because people arrive to the United States at different times, it is obvious that there will be different generations living in the United States. The researcher will look at first, second and 1.5-generation Mexicans. The 1.5-generation represents one of the fastest growing groups. According to Hinkle (2006), this group has a different view of education and it is important for educators to understand the group members' individual and independent needs.


ISBN: 9781303370311