Publication Date


DOI (Digital Object Identifier)



Leadership and Higher Education


Doctor of Education (Ed.D)

Dissertation Chair

James Valadez, Ph.D.

Committee Members

James Valadez, Ph.D.

Phil Mirci, Ph.D.

Greg Hamilton, Ph.D.


spatial abilities, object rotation abilities, spatial perspective taking abilities, STEM, embodied cognition theory, cognitive modifiability, Kinesthetic/Concrete-Pictorial-Abstract, mathematics and movement


Curriculum and Instruction | Early Childhood Education | Education | Educational Assessment, Evaluation, and Research | Educational Leadership | Educational Methods | Elementary and Middle and Secondary Education Administration | Elementary Education | Elementary Education and Teaching | Health and Physical Education | Junior High, Intermediate, Middle School Education and Teaching | Pre-Elementary, Early Childhood, Kindergarten Teacher Education | Science and Mathematics Education | Secondary Education | Secondary Education and Teaching | Teacher Education and Professional Development


The demand for Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM)-related jobs is increasing, while the number of educated and skilled people in this field is decreasing. Uttal, Meadow et al. (2012) emphasized that the development of a person’s spatial skills contributes to an individual’s success in STEM-related fields. In addition, Uttal, Meadow et al. recommended the investigation of the impact of spatial training on younger students. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of a dynamic, fully-embodied learning activity on the development of elementary school students’ spatial skills; in particular, their mental rotation and spatial perspective taking abilities. Based on the difference between the students’ pre-test and post-test scores in the Object Rotation Test and the Perspective Taking Test, it was concluded that a dynamic, fully-embodied learning activity improves the students’ object rotation abilities and spatial perspective taking abilities.

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Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


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