Publication Date


DOI (Digital Object Identifier)



Leadership and Higher Education


Doctor of Education (Ed.D)

Dissertation Chair

Dr. Hideko Sera Psy. D.

Committee Members

Dr. Phil S. Mirci, Ph.D

Dr. Andrew F. Wall, Ph.D


California Policy, Bilingual Education, English Language Learners, ELL, Dual Immersion


Bilingual, Multilingual, and Multicultural Education | Educational Leadership


Within the United States, bilingual education has historically been both accepted and restricted. Throughout the context of social and political events, diversity has impacted the educational system of the nation as millions of immigrants have become a part of American society. This continually changing demographic has proven to have a divisive as well as controversial impact on the concurrent political climate. Politicians and policy makers have mirrored the changing dichotomy of the United States nation through legislation that has impacted language minority students who have continually struggled to achieve academic success. Within the research, the author examines the historical background of legislation impacting immigrants and English learners throughout the years. Specific timeframes ranging from an era of linguistic tolerance to an era of linguistic value discuss the response to subsequent diversity. The disparities are examined as well as the changing bilingual program models that have evolved. To examine California’s current educational state, ten pieces of enacted legislation have been evaluated in order to determine if bilingual education has been perceived as a problem, a right, or a resource. By framing the legislation and the impact that it has had, it served to negotiate an understanding of each situation, point to a cause, determine an alternative, and thereby promote change. The author has concluded that California has made strides towards creating an educational system where bilingualism and language diversity are perceived as resources that have led to implementation of increased numbers of dual immersion programs. Cautionary steps and guidelines are discussed, as well as programmatic recommendations for implementation of effective programs that will value and build on a child’s native language rather than rebuke it.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.


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