Publication Date


DOI (Digital Object Identifier)



Leadership and Higher Education


Doctor of Education (Ed.D)

Dissertation Chair

James Valadez, Ph.D.

Committee Members

Philip Mirci, Ph.D.

Greg Hamilton, Ed.D.

Chris Hunt, Ed.D.


Lower Socioeconomic, Racial Minorities, Behavioral and Cognitive Issues


Accessibility | Disability and Equity in Education | Education | Educational Leadership | Education Economics | Gender Equity in Education


This study focused on the continued mathematical achievement gap among minority students at the K-12 level in the United States (U.S.) public schools. Research has found that factors beyond curriculum and instruction impact student achievement. Schools have been struggling with the achievement gap among minority students in the U.S. In addition to issues with schools, there are issues with students that affect the achievement gap in math. Some of these issues are socioeconomic status, a lack of connection to the school environment, apathetic behavior, and other academic challenges. Flores (2007) stated that students in the U.S. continue to make significant academic achievement over the last 45 years. However, the ethnic and racial achievement gap remains, since not all the students advance and develop at similar rates. Liu and Xie (2014) claimed that closing the achievement gap remains significant because it has a direct effect on the students in addition to society. McGee (2004) argued that there are various explanations for the achievement gaps in middle schools, including shortages in trained, knowledgeable, and skilled math teachers and a lack of motivation in mathematics among students. In the U.S., education remains a fundamental privilege; it is viewed as an essential equalizer that must afford every person opportunity and access. However, many students of color have yet to achieve this dream. There remains a substantial educational disparity that has evolved. Thus, bridging the achievement gap remains important and a priority in the current education system (Smith, 2015).

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.