Publication Date


DOI (Digital Object Identifier)



Leadership and Higher Education


Doctor of Education (Ed.D)

Dissertation Chair

Christopher Hunt, Ed.D.

Committee Members

Rodney K. Goodyear, Ph.D.

David Kurth, Ed.D.


education; academic achievement; access; education; educational justice; music; Title I


Educational Leadership | Music Education


Purpose. The purpose of the study was to determine academic achievement differences between those Title I students enrolled in music classes and Title I students who are not enrolled in music classes. A second purpose was to determine educators' perceptions regarding the educational justice implications of excluding nonproficient Title I students from music.

Methodology. This was a mixed-methods study using quantitative data from the annual state achievement test and quantitative data utilizing a 7-point Likert scale measuring perceptions of teachers and administrators regarding the issue of removing nonproficient Title I students from music programs. Additionally, qualitative data were collected from an open-ended question at the end of the survey. The methodology used for the quantitative and qualitative data enabled the researcher to conduct a statistical analysis that directly addressed the research questions.

Findings. Data analysis revealed that overall, Title I student participating in music enjoy a dramatically higher proficiency rate on the California Standards Test (CST) and California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) than Title I students not participating in music. Additional data demonstrate that teachers and administrators agree that the study of music is important, music "connects" student with school, nonproficient Title I students who are struggling in mathematics should not be pulled from music for supplemental instruction in mathematics, and nonproficient Title I students who are struggling in English should not be pulled from music for supplemental instruction in English. Teachers and administrators, however, disagreed that the involuntary exclusion of nonproficient students denies them their right of equal access. Qualitative themes that emerged were dropout, opportunity, intervention, self-worth, and accountability.

Recommendation. The recommendation for further research is that it should focus on replicating this study in other Title I areas with music programs.


© 2011 Brian McDaniel

All Rights Reserved

ISBN: 9781124840345