Document Title

The O2/N2 Ratio and CO2 Airborne Southern Ocean (ORCAS) Study

Authors

Britton B. Stephens, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO
Matthew C. Long, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO
Ralph F. Keeling, University of California, San Diego
Eric A. Kort, University of Michigan
Colm Sweeney, University of Colorado, Boulder
Elliot L. Atlas, University of Miami
Stuart Beaton, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO
Jonathan D. Bent, University of Colorado, Boulder
Nicola J. Blake, University of California, Irvine
James F. Bresch, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO
Joanna Casey, University of Colorado, Boulder
Bruce C. Daube, Harvard University
Minghui Diao, San Jose State University
Ernesto Diaz, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
Heidi Dierssen, University of Connecticut
Valeria Donets, University of Miami
Bo-Cai Gao, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC
Michelle Gierach, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
Robert Green, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
Justin Haag, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
Matthew Hayman, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO
Alan J. Hills, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO
Martin S. Hoecker-Martinez, University of RedlandsFollow
Shawn B. Honomichl, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO
Rebecca S. Hornbrook, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO
Jorgen B. Jensen, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO
Rong-Rong Li, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC
Ian McCubbin, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
Kathryn McKain, University of Colorado, Boulder
Eric J. Morgan, University of California, San Diego
Scott Nolte, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology
Jordan G. Powers, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO
Bryan Rainwater, University of Colorado Boulder
Kaylan Randolph, University of Connecticut
Mike Reeves, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO
Sue M. Schauffler, University of Miami
Katherine Smith, University of Colorado Boulder
Machenzie Smith, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor
Jeff Stith, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO
Gregory Stossmeister, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO
Darin W. Toohey, University of Colorado Boulder
Andrew S. Watt, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO

Department/School

Physics

Abstract

The Southern Ocean plays a critical role in the global climate system by mediating atmosphere–ocean partitioning of heat and carbon dioxide. However, Earth system models are demonstrably deficient in the Southern Ocean, leading to large uncertainties in future air–sea CO2 flux projections under climate warming and incomplete interpretations of natural variability on interannual to geologic time scales. Here, we describe a recent aircraft observational campaign, the O2/N2 Ratio and CO2 Airborne Southern Ocean (ORCAS) study, which collected measurements over the Southern Ocean during January and February 2016. The primary research objective of the ORCAS campaign was to improve observational constraints on the seasonal exchange of atmospheric carbon dioxide and oxygen with the Southern Ocean. The campaign also included measurements of anthropogenic and marine biogenic reactive gases; high-resolution, hyperspectral ocean color imaging of the ocean surface; and microphysical data relevant for understanding and modeling cloud processes. In each of these components of the ORCAS project, the campaign has significantly expanded the amount of observational data available for this remote region. Ongoing research based on these observations will contribute to advancing our understanding of this climatically important system across a range of topics including carbon cycling, atmospheric chemistry and transport, and cloud physics. This article presents an overview of the scientific and methodological aspects of the ORCAS project and highlights early findings.

Document Type

Article

Publication Title

Bureau of the American Meteorological Society

Publication Date

2-2018

Pages

381-402

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

10.1175/BAMS-D-16-0206.1

Document Version

Publisher's version

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