Nelson's paper attempts to specify how we might identify the hard cases of animal experimentation and draw preliminary conclusions about the ethics of such experimentation. After identifying conditions for research to be "exemplary" and arguing that research concerning diabetes mellitus is reasonably viewed as exemplary research, he considers how such research might be regarded from both utilitarian and nonutilitarian stances. Most of his attention is focused on nonutilitarian approaches, and some valuable insights are offered concerning the conditions under which we might be morally justified in conscripting individuals (of other species or our own) for medical research. I am in agreement with what Nelson is aiming to accomplish in this paper, and in large part with the details. My comments are intended to focus attention on some areas which I found either particularly provocative or in need of clarification. In particular, I shall focus on the problem of utilitarian calculations, the concept of exemplary research, and finally on conscription.
Between the Species
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