In his famous discussion of the source of our duties concerning animals, the German philosopher Immanuel Kant approvingly mentions a series of engravings ("The Four Stages of Cruelty") by the English artist William Hogarth as exemplifying one of his central concentrations. The approach to our duties regarding animals advocated by Kant holds that avoiding cruelty is the most fundamental duty we can have to nonhuman animals. For convenience, I shall refer to this view as the "No-Cruelty" position. It is not surprising that Kant cites Hogarth while explaining his own views; Hogarth's engravings provide a rich visual statement about the nature of cruelty and the moral status of its victims.
Between the Species
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