A Story of Layered Constraints: Economics, Politics, and a World of Feminisms

Publication Year



feminism, society and culture, economics, politics, international relations, equality


Economics | Feminist, Gender, and Sexuality Studies | Gender and Sexuality | International Relations | Political Science | Social and Behavioral Sciences


Sam Shepard once wrote: "In the middle of a contradiction is the best place to be." More than just a simple platitude, this can be looked upon as a political ideal for international feminist movements. If a worldwide gender-based reform is to occur, then these movements must be willing to look beyond traditional economic and moral theories to build new, dual-gendered governmental and economic systems. Modern feminist theory finds itself on the verge of realizing this contradiction between the developed world's concerns over the rights of individuals and the developing world's more pressing needs for economic equality. Unless these contradictions are confronted and integrated within feminist thought, then the hypocrisy (being any contradiction one participates in but is unaware of) of developed-world feminism will inevitably result in the birth of a new, economic-based feminine underclass.

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